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Mathematics – Helpful Formulas

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Basic Algebra

(a + b)2= a2 + 2ab + b2
(a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2
a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b)
a2 + b2 = (a + b)2 – 2ab  or  (a – b)2 + 2ab
(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc +ac)  or  a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca
(a – b – c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 – 2(ab – bc +ac)  or  a2 + b2 + c2 – 2ab + 2bc – 2ca
(a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b)  or  a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
(a – b)3 = a3 – b3 – 3ab(a – b)  or  a3 – 3a2b + 3ab2 – b3
a3 – b3 = (a – b)(a2 + ab + b2)
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 – ab + b2)
a4 – b4 = (a2 – b2)(a2 + b2)  or  (a – b)(a + b)(a2 + b2)
a5 – b5 = (a – b)(a4 + a3b + a2b2 + ab3 + b4)
an + bn = (a + b)(an-1 – an-2b + an-3b2 … – abn-2 + bn-1)

Indices

pn = p.p.p…….n times
pn⋅ pm = pm+n
pn ⋅ qn = (p ⋅ q)n
pm/ pn = xm-n
pn / qn = (p / q)n
(pn)m = pn⋅m
pnm = p(nm)
p-n = 1 / pn
a0 = 1 where a R , a!=0

 

Mathematical Properties

 

Commutative Property of Addition : a + b = b + a
Commutative Property of Multiplication : a x b = b x a
Associative Property of Addition : a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
Associative Property of Multiplication : a x (b x c) = (a x b) x c
Additive Identity Property : a + 0 = a
Multiplicative Identity Property :  a x 1 = a
Additive Inverse Property : a + ( – a ) = 0
Multiplicative Inverse Property : a ( 1/a ) = 1
Zero Property of Multiplication  : a x 0 = 0

 

Mensuration

Perimeter
  • Square = 4a
  • Rectangle = 2a +2b
  • Triangle = a + b + c
Circumference
  • Circle = 2 (pi) r = (pi) x diameter
Area
  • Square = a2
  • Rectangle = a x b
  • Parallelogram = b x h
  • Triangle= ½ (base x height)
  • Trapezoid = h/2 (b1 + b2)
  • Circle = pi x r 2
  • Equilateral Triangle = ½(ah) = [ sqrt(3) / 4 ] x a2
  • Triangle with given a,b,c = sqrt [ s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) ] when s = (a+b+c)/2 (Heron’s Formula)
  • Sphere = 4 (pi) r2
Surface Area
  • Cube= 6a2
  • Cylinder = 2 . pi . r . h
  • Sphere = 4 x pi x r 2
Volume
  • Cylinder = bh
  • Cone = bh/3
  • Sphere = 4 x pi x r3 / 3
Pythagoras Theorem
  • a2 + b2 = c2
Distance Formula
  • d = sqrt[(x2 – x1)2 +(y2 – y1)2]
Slope of a line
  • m = y2 – y1 / x2 -x1
Mid- Point Formula
  • M = (x1 + x2 )/ 2 , (y1 + y2 )/ 2
Slope-intercept form of the equation of a line
  • y = mx + c
Quadratic formula
  • X = [-b ± sqrt(b2 – 4ac)] /2a
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This Post Has 21 Comments

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  10. Muhammad Zia

    اللہ تعالی عزوجل یہ علمی ویب سائیٹ بنانے والے انکے والدین بیوی بچوں کے علم عُمر عمل میں بے حساب اضافہ فرمائیں اور ان سب کا خاتمہ ایمان پر فرمائیں آمین ثم آمین یارب العالمین بجاہ النبی الامین صلی اللہ تعالی علیہ والہ واصحابہ وبارک وسلم

    1. Author

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    1. Author

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